URANIUM EXPLORATION PLANS
 Australia's Uranium Deposits and Prospective Exploration Areas For Yellowcake Resources Limited
Prospective Exploration Areas For Yellowcake Resources Limited

Below is a summary of areas in Australia that we believe are possible future projects with viable potential to generate long term profits.

Summary of Resources Available in Major Deposits and Prospective Mines
Deposit
Grade U3O8
Contained U3O8
category
0.52%
67 000 t
reserves
plus:
0.39%
21 000
measured & indicated resources
0.48%
75 000
inferred resources
0.8%
14 540 t
reserves
0.046%
4 050 t
resources
0.1%
10 250 t
resources
0.14%
5 200 t
resources
Nolans Bore, NT
0.02%
3977 t
resources
0.15-0.4%
36 000 t
reserves & resources
0.15%
52 500 t
indicated resources
0.14%
13 300 t
resources
0.09%
12 000 t
resources
10 700 t
inferred resources
0.03%
7900 t
resources
0.054%
4600 t
resources
0.063%
4400 t
resources
Thatchers Soak, WA
0.03%
4100 t
resources
0.42m%, 0.24%
2900 t
indicated resources
0.045%, 0.33 m%
2 500 t
indicated resources
no data yet
0.012%
9900 t
inferred resources
0.073%
33,000 t
inferred resources
0.048%
8 576 t
resources
?
?
0.080%
0.075%
16 900 t
9000 t
indicated resources
inferred resources
0.119%
5000 t
resources
0.143%
6500 t
inferred resources
up to 0.2%
22 500 t
inferred resources
0.25%
4 760 t
resources
0.123%
2940 t
resources

 Jabiluka, NT
The Jabiluka 1 uranium deposit in the Northern Territory was discovered in 1971 by Pancontinental Mining Limited. In 1973 further drilling located the larger Jabiluka 2 uranium orebody about one kilometre to the east. Jabiluka lies 230 kilometres east of Darwin and 20 kilometres north of Ranger on the edge of the floodplain of Magela Creek, a tributary of the East Alligator River. It is surrounded by the Kakadu National Park, but the mine lease area is excluded from the National Park and adjoins the Ranger lease.
Jabiluka 2 has resources in excess of 160 000 tonnes of uranium oxide, and is one of the world's larger high grade uranium deposits.
An Environmental Impact Study was approved in August 1979. In August 1982 Mineral Lease MLN 1 was granted by the Northern Territory for a period of 42 years following the signing of an agreement with the Northern Land Council, representing the traditional Aboriginal owners. The agreement, approved by the Commonwealth Minister for Aboriginal Affairs, was to provide $10 million to local Aboriginal people up to the end of construction, then royalty-type payments of 4.5% of net revenue, increasing to 5% after ten years. No Aboriginal sacred sites would be disturbed.
By the end of 1982 all necessary mining and environmental approvals had been obtained from governments for the underground mining of the Jabiluka 2 orebody and the Company had been cleared by the Commonwealth to seek sales contracts. Significant marketing progress was made, firm commitments being obtained for the supply of 15 600 tonnes of uranium oxide over ten years. However, with the Australian Labor Party coming to power in the 1983 federal election, Commonwealth approval was withdrawn and development ceased.
In 1987 Pancontinental bought the 35% equity in the project then held by Texaco. In August 1991 Energy Resources of Australia (ERA), the operator of the adjacent Ranger mine, bought the Jabiluka lease from Pancontinental for A $125 million.
In 1993 ERA undertook a feasibility study with a further drilling program on the orebody. This involved more than 12,000 metres of drilling, concentrating on the eastern half of the orebody (which was temporarily renamed North Ranger 2). As a result, ERA published proved and probable reserves of 19.5 million tonnes of ore at an average grade of 0.46% U3O8 containing 90,400 tonnes of uranium oxide. The study envisaged an underground mine, with ore being milled and treated at the existing Ranger site and tailings disposed of there. A total of only 20 hectares of land would be required for the surface facilities at the mine site, or 80 hectares including the haul road (wholly on ERA leases), compared with 820 hectares required under the previously-approved 1982 proposal.

A new Environmental Impact Statement for mining the Jabiluka 2 orebody and milling the ore at Ranger was approved in October 1997, following public comment. A Public Environmental Report on the alternative of milling the ore at Jabiluka was approved in August 1998, conditional upon all tailings being emplaced underground. This completed the Commonwealth approvals process for the project.
The Jabiluka mine development proceeded in 1998-99 with relevant agreements in place. However, mining was deferred until Ranger output starts to decline towards the end of its life, and until agreement could be reached regarding treatment of Jabiluka ore at the Ranger mill. The mine was developed with an 1150 metre access decline and a further 700 metres of excavation around the orebody. About 50,000 tonnes of mineralised material which was removed during development was stockpiled under cover on the surface. Development then ceased and the mine was put on standby with environmental maintenance and planning.
In 2000, following intensive drilling from the underground access to the Jabiluka orebody, ERA revised the overall resource, with some reduction in actual reserves. Proved and probable ore reserves now stand at 12.8 Mt ore @ 0.52%, containing 67,000 tonnes U3O8. Additional measured and indicated resources are 21,000 tonnes U3O8in 0.39% material, and inferred resources a further 75,000 tonnes in 0.48%. All figures are based on a cut-off grade of 0.20%.
In 2003 the Northern Territory government approved ERA's proposal for long-term care and maintenance of the Jabiluka site and this was implemented. The stockpiled mineralised material was backfilled into the decline and a similar quantity of waste rock joined it. ERA also undertook improvements to water management at the site. The new works were in line with the wishes of the Aboriginal traditional owners. They also improved the environmental management of the site and cost less than long-term management of the previous situation. ERA (whose parent company is Rio Tinto) will not proceed with the mine until there is agreement from the local Mirrar Aboriginal people.
 
Koongarra, NT
Koongarra is a small but relatively high grade uranium deposit in the Alligator Rivers of the Northern Territory. It lies some 30 km south of Ranger and 3 kilometres east of Nourlangie Rock. When the Kakadu National Park was set up in 1979, the land covered by the Koongarra Special Mineral Lease was excluded. However, the Lease area is on Aboriginal land.
Koongarra was discovered by Noranda Australia Ltd in 1970. In 1980 Denison Australia Pty Ltd took over Noranda's interests in the deposit. In 1992 Total acquired a 70% interest in Koongarra, which was subsequently acquired by Cogema Australia Pty Ltd. In 1995 Cogema acquired the remaining 30% interest in the project. In 2006 Cogema mining operations became part of Areva NC.
When Denison Australia took over the deposit, a draft EIS was submitted to the Federal Government. The final EIS was approved in 1981. Denison conducted a review of the project to minimise its impacts and this resulted in the definition of a 1050 ha project site extending into the National Park. This area was excised from the National Park by the Koongarra Project Area Act 1981, but this has not yet been proclaimed. In the mid 1980s, and again in 1991, Denison negotiated Aboriginal agreements, but these did not receive the assent of the Federal Minister for Aboriginal Affairs. Development was stalled in 1983. Following the 1996 change of federal Government, all aspects of the project were reassessed by Cogema, but in April 2000 the (Aboriginal) Northern Land Council vetoed development of the project for five years.
The upper orebody has proved and probable ore reserves with an average grade of almost 0.8% U3O8, containing 14 500 tonnes of uranium oxide accessible by open pit mining, and with associated gold. Proposed production was 1375 tonnes U3O8 per year. A poorly-defined lower orebody is estimated to contain 2000 tonnes of uranium oxide in 0.3% ore but does not form part of the reserves.

 Mount Fitch, NT
Mount Fitch was discovered in 1965 and is part of the old Rum Jungle workings near Batchelor, 64 km south of Darwin. Compass Resources NL has been active in the area for some years, primarily focused on the Browns deposit, a copper-cobalt-nickel deposit close to the old Intermediate open pit. In 2006 Compass reported resources of 4050 tonnes U3O8 at Mt Fitch, averaging 0.046%.
 Angela, NT
The Angela deposit, 25 km south of Alice Springs was discovered in 1973 and extensively drilled by Uranerz Australia in 1989, under a Uranerz-MIM joint venture which reported 11,500 tonnes of U3O8 at 0.13%, spread over several kilometres in sandstone.
After Uranerz departed from Australia in 1991, Angela was held under a retention licence, but this was relinquished due to prevailing Labor Government policy. Uranium Australia NL, renamed Black Range Minerals NL, applied for reinstatement of the licence, but it appears to have lapsed. Black Range has gone into administration.
 Bigrlyi, NT
Bigrlyi is a series of discontinuous lenses outcropping over 12.5 km in hard sandstone along the northern edge of the Ngalia Basin in NT. Central Pacific Minerals NL in 1982 reported resources of 2181 tonnes U3O8 averaging 0.372% in eight separate lenses, the main mineral being uraninite, along with vanadium minerals. In mid 2006 the deposit was held by a joint venture including Energy Metals Ltd (53.3%) and Valhalla Uranium (41.7%) who reported indicated and inferred resources of 3800 t U3O8 at 0.21% average (and 4000 t V2O5) at 0.10% cut-off, based on interpretation of historic drill holes. At 0.05% cut off the resource is 5200 t U3O8 at average 0.14%. In September 2006 Paladin Resources took over Valhalla Uranium Ltd.
 Honeymoon, SA (with East Kalkaroo and Gould's Dam)
Honeymoon itself was discovered in 1972, about 75 kilometres north west of Broken Hill, 30 kilometres inside South Australia. MIM Holdings Ltd bought out CSR Ltd's 34.3% share in 1988. In 1997 Sedimentary Holdings NL reached agreement with MIM to acquire the Honeymoon leases next to its own East Kalkaroo deposit on the Yarramba palaeochannel. The exploration licences thus consolidated include much of the Yarramba palaeochannel in both directions from the deposits and have a number of other uranium occurrences. The 1997 agreement also included acquisition of the Gould Dam-Billaroo West leases 80 km northwest of Honeymoon.
The 1997 agreement initially brought together known uranium resources of about 4200 tonnes U3O8 averaging 0.11% and amenable to in-situ leaching. The purchase was funded by Southern Cross Resources Inc. of Toronto, which raised capital in Canada for the development of the SA uranium properties. Sedimentary Holdings progressively reduced its share in Southern Cross and sold the last 7% in September 2004.
The Honeymoon - East Kalkaroo deposit occurs in porous sand of the Yarramba palaeochannel at a depth of 100-120 metres and extending over about 150 hectares. Plans were developed in the late 1970s to extract the uranium oxide by in situ leaching (ISL), and some $12 million was spent in preparation. Draft and Final Environmental Impact Statements were produced, and both South Australian and Commonwealth environmental approval was subsequently obtained in 1981 for production to 450 t/yr. Field tests of the ISL process were carried out and a $3.5 million, 110 t/yr pilot plant was built, but the project was abandoned in 1983.

Aerial view of plant and infrastructure (wellfield is beyond at top left)  Aerial view of plant and infrastructure (wellfield is beyond at top left)

Trial wellfield (extraction well is left of centre)  Trial wellfield (extraction well is left of centre)

Well header building  Well header building

Inside well header building  Inside well header building

Pilot plant  Pilot plant

Field leach trials using the refurbished process plant resumed in 1998 and led to a proposal to produce about 1000 t/yr U3O8 equivalent (as uranium peroxide) at less than US$ 6/lb U3O8. A June 2000 draft EIS covers the Honeymoon - East Kalkaroo deposits on five Mineral Claims and approval of this was granted in November 2001.
Further drilling and logging with a prompt fission neutron tool in 2004 confirmed high-grade resources which were reported in terms of grade thickness (GT) - average grade U3O8 multiplied by thickness of leachable sand holding the uranium. In the Honeymoon deposit itself 3300 t U3O8 at an average GT of 0.84 m% was confirmed, with 900 t U3O8 at an average GT of 0.38 m% in East Kalkaroo adjacent. The program failed to extend these resources, which suggests a smaller operation than earlier envisaged. The main lease is now ML 6109. Further drilling and logging of nearby parts of the Yarramba palaeochannel immediately NW of Honeymoon in 2004 failed to confirm further resources, and the program was shifted to the Gould's Dam area.
Mineralisation at  Billeroo West (including Gould Dam) in the Billeroo palaeochannel is similar to that at Honeymoon. Following exploration late in 2004 of one kilometre of palaeochannel using prompt neutron fission technology, the indicated resource was stated as 2000 t U3O8 at an average GT of 0.33 m% or 0.12% U3O8. Much of the palaeodrainage system there is untested.
In November 2004 the company announced revised development plans down to a 400 tpa plant at Honeymoon costing $A 44 million (US$ 31 million) and with operating cost of A$ 17.70/lb U3O8 (US$ 12.40/lb). Development was deferred pending higher uranium prices and the outcome of further exploration at Gould's Dam. In December 2005 Southern Cross Resources was taken over by Aflease to form SXRuraniumOne Inc, which proceeded to develop the Dominion uranium project in South Africa. Honeymoon information is on its web site.
Following a new feasibility study, in August 2006 Uranium One announced that development of Honeymoon would proceed as a 400 t/yr ISL mine. It quoted indicated resources of 2900 tonnes U3O8 at 0.24% (av grade thickness 0.42 m%) excluding some thin low-grade material included in earlier estimates but again excluding the adjacent East Kalkaroo deposit. Production cost envisaged is US$ 14.13 /lb ($36.70/kgU) and project cost US$ 36 million (A$ 48 million), with the mine to be commissioned early in 2008. In January 2007 a ten-year export permit was granted.
 Beverley Four Mile, SA This deposit is close to the Beverley mine and is being explored by Quasar Resources Pty Ltd (associated with Heathgate Resources) with joint venture partner Alliance Resources Ltd. Some very positive results have been obtained and a mineral resource estimate is due to be released early in 2007.
 Mt Gee, SA
Working with data from earlier drilling campaigns, Marathon Resources has quantified to publishable standard the uranium resources of the Paralana ore system comprising a number of uranium and polymetallic orebodies spread over 12 km in the north Flinders Ranges of South Australia. The Mt Gee deposit has a total of 33,000 tonnes U3O8, mostly as inferred resources and mostly low-grade (0.05% cut off) but with some higher-grade portions. Other orebodies in the system are also prospective. The area has been drilled extensively since 1968 by Exoil, CRAE (Rio Tinto) and Goldstream. The Mt Gee - Mt Painter mineralisation is the source of uranium in the palaeochannels around Beverley, a few kilometres east.
 Curnamona, SA
A large area including all of the Yarramba palaeochanel north of Honeymoon- East Kalkaroo was held by Havilah Resources but was floated as Curnamona Energy Ltd in 2005, with Havilah holding 50.6% of the new company. No resources are yet quantified.
 Crocker Well & Mt Victoria, SA
Uranium mineralisation in the Olary area of SA (Curnamona province) was investigated 1951-78 by the SA Mines department and private companies, and the Crocker Well deposit went through to a feasibility study then. This uranium field has six deposits over 4 sq km. Inferred resources are 12.5 million tonnes @ 0.05% U3O8with cut-off of 0.03%. The Mt Victoria deposit 7 km away has an inferred resource of 0.25 Mt grading 0.16%. Mineralisation at Crocker Well is primarily thorian brannerite in igneous rock, with some davidite, that at Mt Victoria is davidite. PepinNini Minerals Ltd now holds both deposits and adjacent prospective ground. Other hard rock outcrops in the area grade up to 2.1% U3O8. With a cut-off of 0.025% the total inferred resource is 8576 t U3O8 at average 0.048% grade. In March 2006 a JORC-compliant inferred resource of 6750 t was quoted with grade of 0.05% for Crocker Well. A scoping study for 500 tU/yr production has encouraged the company to proceed with upgrading the present resource to measured or indicated status and quantifying further mineralisation.
 Prominent Hill, SA
Minotaur Resources Ltd proved up a significant mineral resource in the Gawler Craton, some 150 km NW of Olympic Dam. In 2001 copper-gold mineralisation in iron oxide similar to Olympic Dam's was discovered under 100 m of sedimentary cover by the Mount Woods joint venture, and Minotaur subsequently bought out the other parties, notably BHP-Billiton. Oxiana Ltd then farmed in towards earning 65% of the project by spending $34 million in staged exploration and evaluation. In 2005 Minotaur resources was acquired by Oxiana Ltd.
As of August 2004 an inferred resource of 97 million tonnes at 1.5% copper, 0.5 g/t gold and 103 ppm uranium in the upper chalcocite. In deeper chalcopyrite, uranium runs to 120 ppm. This gives less than 10,000 tonnes U, with unknown mineralogy and hence uncertain recovery.
 Kintyre, WA
The Kintyre deposit is a significant high-grade uranium orebody with a small surface outcrop in the remote Rudall region of Western Australia. This is on the western edge of the Great Sandy Desert in the Eastern Pilbara Region of Western Australia, approximately 70 km south of Telfer and some 1200 kilometres NNE of Perth. It was discovered by Rio Tinto Exploration in 1985 through surface follow-up of a number of radiometric anomalies detected during an airborne survey.
The deposit then lay less than a kilometre inside the state's largest national park, covering 1.5 million hectares. The Rudall River National Park is surrounded by vacant crown land and has boundaries defined arbitrarily by latitude and longitude rather than natural features. It was established in 1977 to preserve and demonstrate an arid desert dry river ecosystem in the Eastern Pilbara region. Mineral exploration was permitted within it. However, the Kintyre orebody is outside the catchment area which the Park had been intended to protect.
Canning Resources Pty Ltd was the Rio Tinto company which in association with Rio Tinto Exploration took over the role of assessing the feasibility of bringing a mine into production. By 1988 reserves of some 24 000 tonnes of uranium oxide (in association with other minerals) had been delineated, with a further 12 000 tonnes of inferred resources, in several contiguous parts of the orebody, with a grade of 0.2 - 0.4% U3O8 and a cut-off grade of 0.05%. This showed that development was feasible.
In 1991 Rio Tinto Exploration received the WA Minister for Mines' Award for Environmental Excellence "for the overall commitment of exploration staff to minimising the impact of exploration activities at Rudall River whilst under critical community scrutiny and for progressively rehabilitating all areas disturbed during exploration, as an integral part of the overall exploration programme."
In April 1994 the State Government excised an area of 15,100 hectares from the Rudall River National Park, including the Kintyre project area. At the same time a strip of land of 15,400 ha was added to the western boundary of the Park, part of the river system that the park was set up to protect.

 

Production is envisaged at 1800-2000 tonnes of uranium oxide concentrate per year, with open pit mining. There is the potential for further resources to be identified. The vein-type nature of the orebody makes it possible to use radiometric ore sorting so that the mill feed is effectively very high grade, which results in lower processing costs and a compact treatment plant. The total area disturbed by the proposed mine and treatment plant, including up to five small open cuts, will be about three square kilometres (300 ha), with the treatment plant occupying about six hectares. An additional 100 ha will be required for infrastructure. Capital cost of the project is estimated to be $120 million.
Tailings will be in two streams, both as filter cake, which will be buried in purpose-built disposal facilities or in a mined-out pit. The first stream is a conventional residue from acid leaching, containing most of the ore¹s radioactivity. The second is mixed gypsum and iron hydroxide from an iron precipitation stage. The other eventual waste will be some evaporite from process liquors which cannot be recycled. There will be no tailings dam.
Due to low international uranium prices and other outstanding approval requirements, the project was slowed down in 1997 and Rio Tinto Exploration put it under care and maintenance late in 1998. In 2002 it was decommissioned and rehabilitated.

 Yeelirrie, WA
The Yeelirrie deposit is between Wiluna and Leinster, WA, about 500 kilometres north of Kalgoorlie and close to the Goldfields gas pipeline. It is also close to the existing infrastructure serving WMC nickel mines at Mount Keith and Leinster.
Western Mining Corporation (WMC) discovered the shallow and extensive deposit in 1972. It is reputedly the world's largest sedimentary deposit of its kind. In August 1978 Urangesellschaft Australia Pty Ltd bought for A $3 million a 10% interest in the deposit, but this was reacquired by WMC in October 1993. At the same time Esso was brought into the project and given 15% equity in return for a commitment to fund 80% of the Stage I feasibility study and pilot plant, then costed at A $21 million. Esso withdrew in May 1982 for commercial reasons and the share reverted to WMC.
The deposit extends over 9 kilometres, is up to 1.5 kilometres wide, up to 7 metres thick and lies mostly at a depth of 5.5 metres below the surface. It comprises a mineral resource of 35 million tonnes with an average grade of 0.15%, containing 52 000 tonnes of uranium oxide, which could readily support a low-cost mining operation producing a proposed 2500 tonnes per year of uranium concentrate with 1000 tonnes per year of vanadium oxide by-product.
An Environmental Impact Statement was produced in 1978 and resulted in environmental approval from both state and Commonwealth governments. In the twelve years to 1983 WMC and its partners (then including Esso) spent a total of $35 million preparing to develop Yeelirrie as an open cut mine, including building and operating the pilot metallurgical plant at Kalgoorlie. A $320 million project was envisaged and sales contracts were being planned. However, the 1983 federal election and implementation of the ALP "three mines policy" meant that permission to negotiate sales contracts was withdrawn in March 1983. Plans were then abandoned, and WMC's attention focussed on developing Olympic Dam.
A new state Labor government was elected in 2002 with an ideological anti-uranium stance. Pursuant to this, the 1978 state mining agreement for Yeelirrie was revoked in March 2004. However, WMC Resources retained the mining tenements and awaited future opportunities after undertaking rehabilitation of the site by the end of 2004. In 2005 ownership passed to BHP Billiton Ltd.
 Mulga Rock, WA
The Mulga Rock polymetallic deposit 250 km north east of Kalgoorlie was discovered by PNC Exploration in 1979. It comprises Ambassador, Emperor and Shogun deposits, the first being some 20 km from the others and the three covering some 7 square kilometres. Mineralisation consists principally of uranium, scandium, nickel and cobalt in lignite within a sedimentary basin, with uranium apparently comprising half or less of the recoverable value of minerals. In particular the orebodies are a major scandium resource. Ore thickness is 0.5 to 5 metres at depths of 35 - 45 m.
PNC evaluated only the uranium content and identified an estimated resource of 46,000 t U3O8 at 0.095% U grade. Applying a grade thickness cut-off of 0.1 m%U provided an estimated resource of 10.8 Mt ore with 15,000 t U3O8 at 0.13% U.
The deposits were acquired by Eaglefield Holdings Pty Ltd in 2000. It undertook a preliminary feasibility study on the Ambassador deposit, which indicated that an open pit producing four metals including 200 tpa Sc oxide over ten years should be viable. The other two deposits should double mine life. Metallurgical studies show high recoveries of uranium and scandium using acid leach and solvent extraction. Progress has slowed due to state government policies relating to uranium mining. In 2005 Bullion Minerals Ltd attempted to acquire the project and in 2006 this company became Uranium Equities Ltd, with a 15.6% shareholding by Laramide Resources Ltd.
 Manyingee, WA
This deposit was discovered in 1974 in the northern part of the Carnarvon Basin, 85 km south of Onslow in Western Australia.
It occurs in sandstones and siltstones at a depth of 60-110 metres, and seven mineralised rollfronts extend over 7 km but one third of the deposit occurs in 1.5 km2. The orebodies contain a total indicated and inferred resource of 7860 tonnes of U3O8 in 0.12% ore, with potential for 9500 tonnes. Two pumping tests and one five-spot in situ leaching test have been run to evaluate whether the ore is amenable to in situ leaching and whether the leach solutions can be confined. Subsequent monitoring has confirmed that there is no environmental contamination from these tests. Development was suspended due to federal Labor Government policy on uranium. The project is covered by three mining leases granted in 1989.
Following the transfer of Total's worldwide uranium assets to Cogema in 1993, the deposit became owned 92.3% by Afmeco Mining and Exploration Pty Ltd (AFMEX), a subsidiary of Cogema Australia, in joint venture with Urangesellschaft Australia Pty Ltd (7.7%). They sold the deposit to a wholly-owned subsidiary of Paladin Resources in 1998 for A$ 3.25 million plus 1% royalty, which in 1999 was renegotiated to $1 million plus $0.75 million on project approval plus increased but capped royalties. Paladin had hoped to bring the deposit into production in about 2005, but has concentrated on its African prospects while WA government policies precluded uranium development.
 Oobagooma, WA
This deposit occurs in a zone averaging 2 metres thick in sandstone, 75 kilometres northeast of Derby in Western Australia. The deposit was held owned by Afmeco Mining and Exploration Pty Ltd (AFMEX), a subsidiary of Cogema Australia, but was sold to a wholly-owned subsidiary of Paladin Resources in 1998 for A$ 0.9 million plus 1% royalty. It is held under two exploration licence applications.
The inferred resource potential is quoted as 8000 to 12 000 tonnes of uranium oxide at 0.1- 0.15% U3O8, and AFMEX had calculated a geological resource of 9950 tonnes with cut off of 0.035%. In situ leaching appears to be the most likely method of extraction and some pump test work has been done.
Lake Way &  Centipede, WA
The Lake Way deposit, close to Wiluna, 750 kilometres north east of Perth in Western Australia, was discovered in 1972. Delhi International Oil Corporation (53.5%) and Vam Ltd (46.5%) were joint venturers initially, but Asarco Australia Ltd bought out its partner and in May 1994 became Wiluna Mines Ltd, whose main focus is on gold.
Lake Way is a very shallow low-grade sedimentary deposit in calcrete and clays. It averages 1.5 metre thick but ranges up to 5 metres below the surface. It was to have been mined by four or more pits over some 9 square kilometres. Some 5.76 million tonnes of 0.087% U3O8 ore was identified by 1981, though later reserves were quoted as 3.77 million tonnes of 0.096% ore. The larger tonnage was expected to yield 4000 tonnes of uranium oxide concentrate. Plans were abandoned in 1983. In 2005 Nova Energy Ltd held the title and quoted a resource of 4600 t U3O8 at 0.054%.
The smaller Centipede calcrete deposit is 12 km south of the Lake Way deposit, but is higher grade. It consists of two or three lenses of 1 to 5 m thick mineralisation containing carnotite through the carbonate matrix of a chemical delta where a 30 km drainage system enters Lake Way. Acclaim Uranium held the deposit in the 1990s and reported 2257 t U3O8 resources. Nova Energy Ltd quoted 4440 t U3O8 resources at 0.063% for it in 2006.
Nova Energy is undertaking feasibility studies for 750 t/yr production of U3O8 with low-cost open cut mining of both deposits and carbonate leach plant.
 Lake Maitland, WA
Several calcrete deposits occur at Lake Maitland, 100 km SE of Wiluna. Thee were evaluated by Carpentaria Exploration, Esso and then Acclaim Uranium in the late 1990s. The deposit underlies the northern end of Lake Maitland itself. The mineralised zone is about 6 km long and 300-600 m wide, 1.5-2.0 m below the surface and up to 2 m deep. Acclaim estimated that indicated and inferred resources were almost 8000 t U3O8 at average 0.05%. By 2005 the deposit was owned by Redport Ltd, and in mid 2006 inferred resources were stated as 10,700 t U3O8 at 0.03% with 0.01% cut off, 4759 tonnes of this "high-grade". In July 2006 Mega Uranium Ltd entered into an agreement to acquire Redport.
 Valhalla, Qld
This deposit was discovered 40 km north of Mount Isa about 1954 by a prospector. MIM took it over and sunk an exploration shaft. In the 1960s it passed to Queensland Mines Ltd which drilled it extensively and held it until 1992, when Summit Resources Ltd took over. A drilling program in 50:50 joint venture with Valhalla Uranium Ltd has identified an JORC-compliant resource of 26,900 tonnes U3O8 at 0.023% cut-off and averaging 0.077%. About 70% of the ore is above 0.064% cut-off. The mineralisation is hosted within highly altered and mineralised tuff and shale, and includes some vanadium. The deposit remains open along strike to the north and south and at depth. A full feasibility study is planned, though the state Labor government has said it will not issue any mining lease for uranium. In September 2006 Paladin Resources took over Valhalla Uranium Ltd. Indicated resources were then quoted as 16,900 t U3O8 and inferred resources 9000 t.
Summit also holds the Andersons,  Skal, Bikini and Mirrioola deposits nearby.
 Westmoreland, Qld (& NT)
This comprises the eastern end of a series of small prospects and deposits spread over about 50 kilometres straddling the Queensland - Northern Territory border, about 400 kilometres north of Mount Isa. Westmoreland is on the Queensland side of the border and its deposits extend over about 10 kilometres.
The first uranium mineralisation was discovered here in 1956, by a prospector with a Geiger counter. Late in 1956 the Bureau of Mineral Resources flew an airborne scintillometer survey and recognised anomalies in outcrops of the Westmoreland conglomerate held by Mount Isa Mines Ltd (MIM). Further work resulted in three mining leases being pegged over the Redtree deposit in 1959.
In 1967 Queensland Mines Pty Ltd obtained an exploration permit over the area surrounding the MIM-ZC leases and commenced a major drilling program which identified further Redtree deposits and the Huarabagoo deposit. In 1975 Queensland Mines formed a Joint Venture with Urangesellschaft Australia Pty Ltd, Anglo Australian Resources NL and IOL Petroleum Ltd, with the IOL share later being taken over by a CRA subsidiary. In the period 1976 to 1983 Urangesellschaft discovered the Junnagunna deposit while they were managing the Joint Venture. In 1985 Queensland Mines resumed management.
In 1990 CRA Exploration Pty Ltd (now Rio Tinto Exploration P/L) entered the Queensland Mines - Urangesellschaft Joint Venture and took over the exploration work with a view to earning equity in the Joint Venture. In 1997 Rio Tinto took over the whole project (it already had a 100% interest in the original MIM-ZC mining leases at Redtree), but relinquished the leases in 2000.
The main deposits comprise three mineralised pods adjacent to the Redtree Dyke and flat irregular masses further from it. Grades are 0.1-0.2% and 0.04-0.15% U3O8 respectively, with associated gold. The total inferred resource for Redtree, Huarabagoo and Junnagunna is about 21,000 tonnes contained U3O8. Three other prospects contain further small known resources. The "copper/gold/uranium" leases were apparently taken up by Tackle Resources after Rio Tinto relinquished them and in August 2004 the rights were bought by Canadian company Laramide Resources Ltd for US$ 150,000 plus some Laramide shares.
 Ben Lomond, Qld
This deposit, some 50 kilometres west of Townsville, was discovered in 1975 by Total Mining Australia Pty Ltd. Mining leases were granted in 1980 and 1983. In 1994, following the transfer of Total's worldwide uranium assets to Cogema, the company changed its name to Afmeco Mining and Exploration Pty Ltd (AFMEX), which is a wholly-owned subsidiary of Cogema Australia Pty Ltd. In July 1997 AFMEX agreed to sell the deposit to Anaconda Uranium Corporation of Canada for A$ 3 million plus 1% royalty, but due to state government policies Anaconda walked away from the deal after an initial payment. The deposit reverted to AFMEX.
A resource of about 6800 tonnes U3O8 with an average grade of 0.228% U3O8 and 4578 tonnes of molybdenum at an average grade of 0.149% has been delineated. A 1982 feasibility study proposed recovery of 4760 tonnes U3O8 from 0.246% ore.
Proposed mining of the deposit was to be primarily open cut, but with about one third of the orebody being underground mined, and with annual production of 500 tonnes of uranium oxide and 250 tonnes of molybdenum. The 1984 Environmental Impact Study was accepted by state and federal authorities, and a water monitoring program is continuing. Development was suspended due to both federal and state Labor Government policy on uranium. Anaconda intended to prepare a new feasibility study on the project based on "a more economic and environmentally friendly method of extracting the uranium", and to update environmental studies. The small Maureen deposit, 300 km inland, was to provide "operating synergy", and joint production facilities were envisaged. AFMEX prepared a revised Plan of Operations covering the final rehabilitation of the site. This plan was to be implemented once all regulatory approval had been obtained, but in 2005 the deposit was sold for $1 million to Uranium Mineral Ventures Inc, a subsidiary of Maple Minerals Corp of Canada. In January 2005 Mega Uranium Ltd agreed to acquire 100% of UMV and in February 2006 the Queensland government approved transfer of the leases to UMV. Indicated and inferred resources of 4770 t U3O8 at 0.25% were mentioned at that point.
 Maureen, Qld
The small Maureen uranium deposit near Georgetown in north Queensland was bought in July 1997 by Anaconda Uranium Corporation for $325,000 plus royalties, but in 1998 reverted to its previous private owners. Measured and indicated resources are almost 3000 tonnes of U3O8 grading 0.123% with 0.07% molybdenum as wll as fluorite and accessible by open pit. Some $8 million was spent on the deposit in the 1970s. In 2005 the deposit was owned by Georgetown Mining Ltd and in August 2005 Mega Uranium Ltd acquired the rights to the deposit and surrounding mineralised areas.


Australia's known uranium resources have increased little since 1982 (except for Olympic Dam), which may be correlated with diminished exploration expenditure. Over the last 20 years, uranium exploration in Canada has proceeded strongly, resulting in their known resources increasing substantially. In 2004 exploration in Australia started to ramp up again and in 2006-07 is estimated to be over $100 million.